Environmental Modelling: Finding Simplicity in Complexity
Simulation models are increasingly used to investigate processes and solve practical problems in a wide variety of disciplines. Central to the concept of this book is the idea that environmental systems are complex, open systems. The approach that the authors take is to present the diversity of approaches to dealing with environmental complexity and to encourage readers to make comparisons between these approaches and between different disciplines. Now thoroughly revised and updated the second edition of this successful and well respected text book is an indispensible aid to all Environmental modelling students.
This book is divided into four main sections. The first section provides an overview of methods and approaches to modelling. The following sections look at the state of the art in modelling different processes, the tools used and the applications addressed. It concludes with a look into the future of simulation modelling and some of the major developments in the field that are currently ongoing, including the use of GIS.
* Focuses on simplifying complex environmental systems
* Reviews current software, tools and techniques for modeling
* Includes an associated website containing colour images, links to WWW resources and chapter support pages, including data sets relating to case studies, exercises and model animations
* Gives practical examples from a wide variety of disciplines, e.g., climatology, ecology, hydrology, geomorphology and engineering.
- John Wainwright and Mark Mulligan
- 2012-10-01, Wiley
GIS and Cartographic Modeling
GIS and Cartographic Modeling is a foundational work in the field of geographic information systems (GIS). An introduction to the concepts, conventions, and capabilities of map algebra as a general language, this book describes the analytical use of raster-based GIS. By focusing on the fundamentals of cartographic modeling techniques, C. Dana Tomlin illustrates concepts that can be applied to any GIS. This publication of GIS and Cartographic Modeling contains updated graphics and a new preface.
- C. Dana Tomlin
- 2012-10-01, ESRI Press
Visual Data Mining: The VisMiner Approach
Data mining has been defined as the search for useful and previously unknown patterns in large datasets, yet when faced with the task of mining a large dataset, it is not always obvious where to start and how to proceed.
This book introduces a visual methodology for data mining demonstrating the application of methodology along with a sequence of exercises using VisMiner. VisMiner has been developed by the author and provides a powerful visual data mining tool enabling the reader to see the data that they are working on and to visually evaluate the models created from the data.
- Presents visual support for all phases of data mining including dataset preparation.
- Provides a comprehensive set of non-trivial datasets and problems with accompanying software.
- Features 3-D visualizations of multi-dimensional datasets.
- Gives support for spatial data analysis with GIS like features.
- Describes data mining algorithms with guidance on when and how to use.
Accompanied by VisMiner, a visual software tool for data mining, developed specifically to bridge the gap between theory and practice.
Visual Data Mining: The VisMiner Approach is designed as a hands-on work book to introduce the methodologies to students in data mining, advanced statistics, and business intelligence courses. This book provides a set of tutorials, exercises, and case studies that support students in learning data mining processes.
- Russell Anderson
- 2012-10-01, Wiley
Landscape Analysis using Geospatial Tools
The subject of Landscape Analysis using Geospatial Tools is the combination of geospatial tools such as remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), geostatistics and geovisualization (e.g., 3D displays, fly throughs, annimation) to analyze landscapes, assess human impacts on earth resources, visualize changes over time and conduct research in landscape ecology.
This book truly bridges two broad disciplines, ecology and geography. More specifically, it integrates research and techniques in landscape ecology and geographic information science (GISci) which, in turn, encompasses GIS, remote sensing, GPS, spatial statistics and geovisualization. It is anticipated that this publication will be of interest to a wide audience. Case studies highlight the use of geospatial tools to assess the ecological impacts of human activities and assist in decision making for managers and policy makers.
- Marguerite Madden (Editor)
- 2012-09-30, Springer
Spatio-temporal Networks: Modeling and Algorithms
Spatio-temporal networks (STN)are spatial networks whose topology and/or attributes change with time. These are encountered in many critical areas of everyday life such as transportation networks, electric power distribution grids, and social networks of mobile users. STN modeling and computations raise significant challenges. The model must meet the conflicting requirements of simplicity and adequate support for efficient algorithms. Another challenge is to address the change in the semantics of common graph operations, such as, shortest path computation assuming different semantics, or when temporal dimension is added. Also paradigms (e.g. dynamic programming) used in algorithm design may be ineffective since their assumptions (e.g. stationary ranking of candidates) may be violated by the dynamic nature of STNs.
In recent years, STNs have attracted attention in research. New representations have been proposed along with algorithms to perform key STN operations, while accounting for their time dependence. Designing a STN database would require the development of data models, query languages, and indexing methods to efficiently represent, query, store, and manage time-variant properties of the network. The purpose of Spatio-temporal Networks: Modeling and Algorithms is to explore this design at the conceptual, logical, and physical level. Models used to represent STNs are explored and analyzed. STN operations, with an emphasis on their altered semantics with the addition of temporal dimension, are also addressed.
- Betsy George and Sangho Kim
- 2012-09-12, Springer
Geospatial Tools for Urban Water Resources
* Examines the application of geotechniques to address a wide range of issues facing urban water resources.
* Focuses on the development and implementation of GIS and remote sensing tools.
* Discusses case studies from a range of urban environments and international locations.
* Provides a state-of-the-art assessment of how emerging new methods, data, and analytical approaches are being applied to manage water resources in urban areas.
This book examines the application of geotechniques to address a wide range of issues facing urban water resources. Growing populations leading to urbanization and related development have lead to problems associated with water quality, storm water management, flood control, environmental health, and related ecosystem impacts. Major cities and other urban areas are facing challenges in addressing the implications of impacts to water resources. Recent innovations in geotechnologies, including Geographic Information Science (GIS), remote sensing, and other spatial tools and techniques, provide great opportunities and potential to assist in dealing with these problems.
This volume provides a series of case studies that examine the application of new methods and approaches in a range of geotechnologies as utilized to better understand and resolve urban water resource concerns in communities throughout the world. Computer based mapping, spatial analysis, satellite imagery, decision support systems, web based applications, aerial photography, and other methods are highlighted by their development and application. The research presented in this volume will provide for an excellent source of knowledge and learning to assist professionals, experts, and students with a better understanding of how the use of geotechnologies can be used to assist urban communities to address water resource challenges.
- Patrick L. Lawrence (Editor)
- 2012-09-04, Springer
Learning Science Through the Innovative Use of Geospatial Technologies: Designing Effective Learning Tools and Programs for K-16 Settings
The extraordinary gains in computer performance over the past two decades have been paralleled by a related growth in geospatial applications. An important reason for this proliferation is that these tools provide a convenient framework for multidisciplinary analysis and synthesis of data in environmental science, earth science, and the social sciences in particular. The value of geospatial technology for learning is not new, as for more than a decade, educators have recognized the promise of geographic geospatial technologies to support learning through inquiry across the social and natural sciences. However, only recently with the rise of easier to use geospatial technologies such as Google Earth and similar resources have educators been able to critically examine how geospatial technologies can support students in learning. In fact, the nature of geospatial technologies with its ability to allow users to examine and visualize large data sets and to discern patterns from those data presents an excellent opportunity to better understand how educators can support students in higher level thinking skills.
Now is the time for a summation of this rapidly emerging field as there has been significant work examining the learning impacts of having students use geospatial technologies that is either happening now or has just reached completion. This edited book will serve to define the field of learning environment design for teaching science using geospatial technology. As such, it will identify short term and long term objectives for science, environmental, and geography educators involved in these efforts. Further, this book will be complementary to MaKinster, Trautmann, and Barnett’s book Teaching Science and Investigating Environmental Issues with Geospatial Technology: Designing Effective Professional Development for Teachers. Whereas MaKinster’s et al. book focuses on teacher professional development, this book will focus strictly on student learning outcomes and the design of geospatial environments for K-16 students. As a result, this book will provide a framework for future projects and research on learning in K-16 settings.
- Michael Barnett, James MaKinster and Nancy Trautmann
- 2012-08-31, Springer
Noise Mapping in the EU: Models and Procedures
Protecting citizens from high noise levels and preserving quiet areas in the urban environment is a key issue for the European Community. Noise mapping is the first tool for assessing noise exposure, communicating information to citizens, and defining effective action plans. Indeed, strategic noise maps are now required for all population centres of more than 250,000 inhabitants and for major roads, railways and airports, and strategic noise maps are now becoming required for urban areas with over 100,000 people.
This comprehensive reference guide for technicians and acoustics consultants shows how to integrate data with geographical information systems, improve accuracy in model and prediction software, and assess different methods and descriptors for evaluating annoyance and noise exposure. It provides guidance on regulations, communication processes for citizens involved in decision making, physical aspects, and application. Different chapters are written by European experts from a range of research institutes, companies and environmental agencies.
- Gaetano Licitra
- 2012-08-24, Taylor & Francis
Statistical Geoinformatics for Human Environment Interface
A clear, concise discussion of spatial patterns of interaction between complexes of environmental process factors and human process factors, this book facilitates the convergence of the two sides for focus on the interactions between human factors and environmental factors at the interface. It recognizes the information resources in the repertoire of each side and elucidates the informational elements with special relevance to the interface and ways of handling these elements effectively. The author takes an intellectual middle ground between spatial statistics, multivariate analysis, and geographic information systems.
- Wayne L. Myers
- 2012-08-03, Taylor & Francis
Hydrogeological Conceptual Site Models: Data Analysis and Visualization
A reference for students, researchers, and practicing professionals, this book covers conceptual site model (CSM) development, spatial data analysis, and visual data presentation for hydrogeology and groundwater remediation. It provides numerous examples of full color charts, graphs, cross-sections, maps, and 3D graphics for the presentation of environmental data. It clearly outlines the required elements of a CSM, offering proven tips and techniques based on the authors’ experience.
The author details data analysis methods such as kriging, geospatial processing with GIS, and groundwater modeling and includes practical real-life examples. He also presents case studies in groundwater remediation, including technical impracticability and water supply.
- Neven Kresic and Alex Mikszewski
- 2012-07-16, Taylor & Francis